Stomach Cancer and Diet: Can Certain Foods Increase Your Risk?

Laura Gottschalk, PhD, Cancer Prevention & Treatment Fund

There is growing evidence that the foods we eat can increase the chances of developing certain types of cancer. A new report by the World Cancer Research Fund International says that stomach cancer is one of them.

Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of death from cancer.[1] Older adults are more at risk to develop stomach cancer with most people in the U.S. being diagnosed over the age of 70.[2] Men are twice as likely to develop stomach cancer compared to women.[2]

You can’t control how old you are or whether you are a man or woman, but what you eat can either increase or decrease your chances of developing stomach cancer. The World Cancer Research Fund looked at all the scientific research that was available discussing diet, weight, physical activity, and the risk of stomach cancer.[3] After looking at 89 studies that examined nearly 77,000 cases of stomach cancer, the report concluded that each of the following can increase a person’s risk for developing stomach cancer.

  • Drinking three or more alcoholic drinks per day.
  • Eating foods preserved by salting, such as pickled vegetables and salted or dried fish, as traditionally prepared in East Asia.
  • Eating processed meats that have been preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or by the addition of preservatives. Examples: ham, bacon, pastrami, salami, hot dogs, and some sausages
  • Being overweight or obese, as measured by body mass index (BMI).

Based on their findings, the WCFR has made several recommendations to reduce your risk of stomach cancer:

  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Be physically active
  • Eat a healthy diet that avoids processed meat and limits salt
  • Limit your alcohol consumption

These recommendations are good ones for preventing cancer in general, not just stomach cancer.

Still not convinced to give up your 6-packs, kimchi, and bacon just yet? This is just the latest of many studies showing that being overweight and eating processed meats increases your risk of cancer. And, previous research has also shown that drinking more alcohol increases your chances of developing cancer.[4] However, this is probably the most comprehensive study showing the link between a range of eating and drinking habits and stomach cancer.

In addition to what you eat, there are other aspects of your life that increase the risk of stomach cancer.

  • Smoking: It is estimated that 11% of stomach cancer cases are due to smoking.
  • Infection: A bacteria called pylori is known to cause chronic inflammation of the stomach which can lead to stomach cancer. Fortunately, food sanitation in developed countries dramatically cuts down on risk of infection.
  • Industrial chemicals: Exposure to dust and high-temperature environments in the workplace increases the risk of stomach cancer.

If you can’t reduce the risks of smoking, infection or industrial chemicals, changing your diet is the best option for reducing your chances of stomach cancer. Eating fresh vegetables and meats is better than preserved and processed ones. That doesn’t mean you should never eat another hot dog or slice of bacon, but it does mean trying to eat them only rarely. As with most things, moderation is key. Try and balance your diet:  don’t just decrease the amount of unhealthy foods you eat, but also increase the amount of healthy foods. Studies have shown that eating lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruit,[5] may even reduce your chances of developing stomach cancer![3]

All articles are reviewed and approved by Dr. Diana Zuckerman and other senior staff.

References

  1. end Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Global Cancer Statistics.”  Department of Health and Human Services. 02 Feb. 2015. Accessed: 05/04/2016. http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/international/statistics.htm
  2. end National Cancer Institute. “What you need to know about stomach cancer.” NIH Publication No. 09-1554. Printed September 2009. Brochure.
  3. end World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous “Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Stomach Cancer.” 2016. Available at: wcrf.org/stomach-cancer-2016.
  4. end IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. “Personal habits and indoor combustions. Volume 100 E. A review of human carcinogens. Exit Disclaimer.” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks in Humans. 2012: 100(Pt E):373-472.
  5. end Bae JM, Lee EJ, et al. “Citrus fruit intake and stomach cancer risk: a quantitative systematic review.” Gastric Cancer. 2008;11(1):23-32.